# Bernstein-Vazirani Algorithm¶

An Introduction to Bernstein-Vazirani Algorithm

Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm was proposed by Bernstein Ethan and Vazitani Umesh in 1993. This algorithm can solve the Bernstein-Vazirani problem, which can be described as follows.

Give a Boolean function

$f_s:\{0,1\}^n\rightarrow \{0,1\}: f_s(x)=s\cdot x, x,s\in\{0,1\}^n.$

Here, $$s$$ is an unknown bit string and

$s\cdot x=(\sum_{i=1}^n s_ix_i) mod~2,$

where $$x_i​$$ and $$s_i​$$ are $$i​$$-th bit of $$x​$$ and $$s​$$, respectively.

Our goal is to determine the bit string $$s​$$. The classical algorithms of this problem need at least $$\Omega(n)​$$ black boxes of $$f_s​$$, but Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm only needs $$O(1)​$$ black boxes of $$f_s​$$.

Realization of Bernstein-Vazirani Algorithm on HiQ

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67  def run_BV_algorithm(eng, n, oracle): """ Args: eng (MainEngine): the Main engine on which we run the BV algorithm n (int): number of qubits oracle (function): oracle used by the BV algorithm """ x = eng.allocate_qureg(n) # start in uniform superposition All(H) | x oracle_out = eng.allocate_qubit() X | oracle_out H | oracle_out oracle(eng, x, oracle_out) All(H) | x All(Measure) | x Measure | oracle_out eng.flush() return [int(qubit) for qubit in x] def BV_oracle(eng, qubits, output): """ This is an oracle for linear function f(x) = s cdot x, where s=[1,0,0,0,...]. This oracle mark the basis x for which f(x)=1. Args: eng (MainEngine): Main compiler engine the algorithm is being run on. qubits (Qureg): n-qubit quantum register BV_algorithm is run on. output (Qubit): Output qubit to flip in order to mark the solution. """ CNOT | (qubits, output) if __name__ == "__main__": # create a main compiler engine with a simulator backend: backend = SimulatorMPI(gate_fusion=True, num_local_qubits=20) cache_depth = 10 rule_set = DecompositionRuleSet(modules=[projectq.setups.decompositions]) engines = [TagRemover(), LocalOptimizer(cache_depth), AutoReplacer(rule_set), TagRemover(), LocalOptimizer(cache_depth) #,CommandPrinter() , GreedyScheduler() ] eng = HiQMainEngine(backend, engines) n = 10 # number of qubits print("===========================================================") print("= This is the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm demo") print("= you can change the unknown string by modifying the oracle") s = run_BV_algorithm(eng, n, BV_oracle) s_str = "".join([str(ch) for ch in s]) print("= Length of the bit string: {}".format(n)) print("= The unknown bit string is: {}".format(s_str)) print("===========================================================")